In this post we are going to develop a neural network forex trading system. We will use a simple neural network called NNET. In recent years, artificial intelligence and deep learning has taken over the trading world. Hedge funds and big banks are using these advanced cutting edge tools to beat the market on a daily basis. On the other hand, most retail traders have no clue what this deep learning thing is and how they can use artificial intelligence in trading. Have you noticed one thing in the past few years? Traditional technical analysis tools like MACD, Stochastic, CCI, Bollinger Bands don’t work like they used to work in the past. But one thing still works. That is price action that includes candlestick patterns. Did you read the post on a **USDJPY trade that made 600 pips with a 10 pip stop loss**? I use price action a lot in my trading. The key is to keep the risk as low as possible.

Time has come for you to start learning and using these new tools that big Wall Street firms are already using. In the last few years there has been a tremendous explosion in the computational power of computers. This has made it possible to use sophisticated data mining algorithmis to make predictions on market behavior. Neural Networks were developed many decades back. Neural networks work just like the human brain neurons. When there is a signal. it can only fire the neuron if it has sufficient strength. This is how the human brain does all its work. Neural networks also work on the same principle. If we have an input signal, it should be above a certain threshold to trigger an output signal. Now there are many neural network software that are being sold in the market. You can buy a good neural network software from $500 to $2,000. It is easy to use these software as everything has been done for you. But I will take a different approach here. Instead of buying an expensive neural network software I suggest you develop your own neural network trading systems. So we will be developing a neural network forex trading system in this post. Keep on reading if you want to learn how to do it. Did you read this post on **how to predict gold price using kernel ridge regression**?

It might take you a few months to learn the theory behind neural networks but it will be worth the effort. Once you have developed the art of training neural network models, you can use it in any field. So if you are interested in knowing how these models are developed keep on reading this post. You should learn R as well as Python. R and Python are powerful data science scripting languages that allow you to do a lot of financial modelling that you cannot do in Excel. Time series analysis is very important when it comes to financial modelling. Price is a financial time series. We record the closing price after every 1 hour or 4 hours regularly. This sequence of closing price constitutes a time series. We as traders know that past price can be used to predict the future price. This is precisely what time series analysis also assumes. We can use past price to predict future price using autoregressive models. I have developed a **course on Time Series Analysis for Traders** that you can take a look at. Many traders have no idea how to use time series models in their trading. I show you how to use time series models in your trading and get great results.

Both R and Python are easy to learn. With a little effort you can learn these languages. In this post we will be using R. R is a powerful statistical language that is used widely in academia. You should R installed on your computer as well as RStudio. Both are open source. So you don’t have to pay anything for using R. I have developed a **course on Python Machine Learning for Traders**. In this course I show you how to develop different machine learning models for your trading system using Python. As said in the start algorithmic trading has become very popular now a days. Days of manual trading are coming to an end. You should start learning fundamentals of algorithmic trading. Today more than 80% of the trades that are being placed at Wall Street are being placed by algorithms. 21st century is being called the century of algorithms. Algorithms are revolutionizing all field of life from health, medicine, car driving, aeroplane flying, detecting bank frauds and all sorts of things. I have developed this course on **Algorithmic Trading with Python** that you can take a look at. Don’t worry I have also developed courses on R that traders can use.

Now when you develop a neural network model, feature selection is very important. Features are the inputs that you give to the model to do the calculations and make predictions. I have been trading for many years now and know the importance of candlesticks as said above. Candlestick patterns are good leading signals. Candlestick patterns are mostly 2 stick patterns and 3 stick patterns. So we will use Open, High, Low and Close of the price to develop features that try to model candlesticks. We will see if we can use these features to predict the market. We will be using high frequency data especially M1 timeframe. Yes, I am talking about 1 minute timeframe. **Did you check this trend following high frequency trading system**? The model that we develop can be used on other timeframes also like the 15 minute, 30 minute, 60 minute, 240 minute. We can do that later. If we can predict the price after each 5 minutes with lets say 80% accuracy we can use that knowledge to trade 5 minute forex binary options as well. Below is the candlestick chart of the 1 minute GBPUSD data.

As you can see R can make very beautiful candlestick charts very fast. If you have a quadcore computer than you can make R even more fast by using Microsoft R Open. I explain eerything how to do it in my course on R. The idea behind using high frequency data was that I wanted to show how fast we can do the calculations and make the predictions using R. I will develop three Neural Network Forex Trading Models .

**Neural Network Forex Trading System 1**

In the first model we take the closing price as feature number 1. We then use it to develop features like (Close-Open)/Open and (high-Low)/Low. Now we lag these 3 input features 1 time and 2 time so that we have a total of 9 input features. We will use a simple neural network model known as a feed forward neural network with one hidden layer. The hidden layer has got 10 neurons. Lets’ see if we get a model that can make good predictions. Below is the R code.

> library(quantmod) Loading required package: xts Loading required package: zoo Attaching package: ‘zoo’ The following objects are masked from ‘package:base’: as.Date, as.Date.numeric Loading required package: TTR Version 0.4-0 included new data defaults. See ?getSymbols. > data <- read.csv("D:/MarketData/GBPUSD+1.csv", header = FALSE) > colnames(data) <- c("Date", "Time", "Open", "High", "Low", "Close", "Volume") > data1 <- as.xts(data[,-(1:2)], as.POSIXct(paste(data[,1],data[,2]), + format='%Y.%m.%d %H:%M')) > tail(data1) Open High Low Close Volume 2017-05-17 16:26:00 1.29636 1.29661 1.29631 1.29634 215 2017-05-17 16:27:00 1.29633 1.29640 1.29615 1.29624 144 2017-05-17 16:28:00 1.29623 1.29624 1.29602 1.29603 195 2017-05-17 16:29:00 1.29604 1.29615 1.29593 1.29612 234 2017-05-17 16:30:00 1.29613 1.29616 1.29582 1.29585 234 2017-05-17 16:31:00 1.29584 1.29586 1.29578 1.29585 46 > data2<- data1[,"Close"] > data2$CO <- (data1[, "Close"]-data1[,"Open"])/data1[,"Open"] > data2$HL <- (data1[, "High"]-data1[,"Low"])/data1[,"Low"] > data2$Close1 <- lag(data2$Close, k=1) > data2$CO1 <- lag(data2$CO, k=1) > data2$HL1 <- lag(data2$HL, k=1) > data2$Close2 <- lag(data2$Close, k=2) > data2$CO2 <- lag(data2$CO, k=2) > data2$HL2 <- lag(data2$HL, k=2) > tail(data2) Close CO HL Close1 CO1 HL1 2017-05-17 16:26:00 1.29634 -1.542781e-05 2.314261e-04 1.29635 -1.388321e-04 0.0002314208 2017-05-17 16:27:00 1.29624 -6.942677e-05 1.928789e-04 1.29634 -1.542781e-05 0.0002314261 2017-05-17 16:28:00 1.29603 -1.542936e-04 1.697505e-04 1.29624 -6.942677e-05 0.0001928789 2017-05-17 16:29:00 1.29612 6.172649e-05 1.697623e-04 1.29603 -1.542936e-04 0.0001697505 2017-05-17 16:30:00 1.29585 -2.160277e-04 2.623821e-04 1.29612 6.172649e-05 0.0001697623 2017-05-17 16:31:00 1.29585 7.717002e-06 6.173888e-05 1.29585 -2.160277e-04 0.0002623821 Close2 CO2 HL2 2017-05-17 16:26:00 1.29654 7.712895e-06 0.0001234168 2017-05-17 16:27:00 1.29635 -1.388321e-04 0.0002314208 2017-05-17 16:28:00 1.29634 -1.542781e-05 0.0002314261 2017-05-17 16:29:00 1.29624 -6.942677e-05 0.0001928789 2017-05-17 16:30:00 1.29603 -1.542936e-04 0.0001697505 2017-05-17 16:31:00 1.29612 6.172649e-05 0.0001697623 > pips<- 10000*(diff(data1$Close, k=5)) > n=2 > direction <- ifelse(pips > n, "Up", + ifelse(pips < -n, "Down", "Range")) > direction <- lag(direction, k=-5) > tail(direction) Close 2017-05-17 16:26:00 "Range" 2017-05-17 16:27:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:28:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:29:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:30:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:31:00 NA > direction <- factor(direction) > x <- nrow(data2) > train2<- data2[(x-300):(x-100),] > valid2<- data2[(x-99):(x-6),] > test2<- data2[(x-5):x,] > trainmean<- apply(train2,2,mean) > trainstd<- apply(train2,2,sd) > trainidn<- (matrix(1,dim(train2)[1],dim(train2)[2])) > valiidn<- (matrix(1,dim(valid2)[1],dim(valid2)[2])) > testidn<- (matrix(1,dim(test2)[1],dim(test2)[2])) > norm_train<- (train2 - t(trainmean*t(trainidn))) / t(trainstd*t(trainidn)) > norm_valid<- (valid2 - t(trainmean*t(valiidn))) / t(trainstd*t(valiidn)) > norm_test<- (test2 - t(trainmean*t(testidn))) / t(trainstd*t(testidn)) > traindir<- direction[(x-300):(x-100)] > validir<- direction[(x-99):(x-6)] > testdir<- direction[(x-5):x] > library(caret) Loading required package: lattice Loading required package: ggplot2 > library(e1071) > m3 <- train(norm_train, traindir, + method = "nnet", + tuneGrid = expand.grid( + .size = c(10), + .decay = 0.1), + trControl = trainControl(method = "none"), + MaxNWts = 50000, + maxit = 1000) Loading required package: nnet # weights: 133 initial value 342.317162 iter 10 value 114.701962 iter 20 value 101.922012 iter 30 value 95.614864 iter 40 value 92.497605 iter 50 value 90.573152 iter 60 value 89.866768 iter 70 value 89.506106 iter 80 value 89.417506 iter 90 value 89.384365 iter 100 value 89.375842 iter 110 value 89.374413 iter 120 value 89.366938 iter 130 value 89.365762 final value 89.365750 converged

We have developed a neural network model which is very simple. it consists of only one hidden layer with 10 neurons. Firsst we check how well the model trained on the training data. We divided the data into training data and validation data. Training data was used to train the neural network.Let’s check how well it has trained itself on the training data.

> direction1 <- predict(m3) > caret::confusionMatrix(xtabs(~direction1 + traindir)) Confusion Matrix and Statistics traindir direction1 Down Range Up Down 7 0 0 Range 8 163 13 Up 0 0 10 Overall Statistics Accuracy : 0.8955 95% CI : (0.8447, 0.9342) No Information Rate : 0.8109 P-Value [Acc > NIR] : 0.0007871 Kappa : 0.581 Mcnemar's Test P-Value : NA Statistics by Class: Class: Down Class: Range Class: Up Sensitivity 0.46667 1.0000 0.43478 Specificity 1.00000 0.4474 1.00000 Pos Pred Value 1.00000 0.8859 1.00000 Neg Pred Value 0.95876 1.0000 0.93194 Prevalence 0.07463 0.8109 0.11443 Detection Rate 0.03483 0.8109 0.04975 Detection Prevalence 0.03483 0.9154 0.04975 Balanced Accuracy 0.73333 0.7237 0.71739

Now you can see above our neural network model has trained well. It is giving an accuracy off 89% on the training data. We will call it in sample accuracy. What we want is our model to predict on unseen data and check what is the accuracy level. This is known as out of sample accuracy. So we use data that we call validation data that our model has not seen and see the accuracy that it is giving. Did you read the post on **why it is difficult to predict exchange rates using statistical models**?

> vali_pred <- predict(m3, norm_valid) > head(vali_pred) [1] Range Range Range Range Range Range Levels: Down Range Up > barplot(table(direction)) > caret::confusionMatrix(xtabs(~vali_pred + validir)) Confusion Matrix and Statistics validir vali_pred Down Range Up Down 0 1 0 Range 7 68 11 Up 1 6 0 Overall Statistics Accuracy : 0.7234 95% CI : (0.6215, 0.8107) No Information Rate : 0.7979 P-Value [Acc > NIR] : 0.96923 Kappa : -0.0621 Mcnemar's Test P-Value : 0.07284 Statistics by Class: Class: Down Class: Range Class: Up Sensitivity 0.00000 0.90667 0.00000 Specificity 0.98837 0.05263 0.91566 Pos Pred Value 0.00000 0.79070 0.00000 Neg Pred Value 0.91398 0.12500 0.87356 Prevalence 0.08511 0.79787 0.11702 Detection Rate 0.00000 0.72340 0.00000 Detection Prevalence 0.01064 0.91489 0.07447 Balanced Accuracy 0.49419 0.47965 0.45783

You can see the accuracy of our model has dropped from 89% to 72% when we switch from seen data to unseen data. Can we do something to increase our accuracy level on unseen data? In the above model we have lagged our input features 3 times, lets do it 5 times and see if it helps in improving accuracy.

**Neural Network Forex Trading System 2**

As said above we increased the inputs by lagging the input features 2 more time. Model building is all trial and error. We need a lot of patience to build a good model. We have expert knowledge regarding our field which is the currency market in this case. We know candlestick patterns have predictive power. We also know looking at the past 4-5 candles we can predict in which direction market is going to move. So lets; use 5 lags in this improved model and see if we can increase the accuracy for our out of sample model. Out of sample data is very important for us as it is unseen and its acccuracy will tell us how much success rate we can expect from our trading system based on that model. We have divided market movement into 3 classes. Movement below 2 pips will be classed as ranging. Movement above 2 pips will be classed as Up and movement below 2 pips will be classed as down movement.

> #load the libraries > library(quantmod) > #import the data > data <- read.csv("D:/MarketData/GBPUSD+1.csv", header = FALSE) > colnames(data) <- c("Date", "Time", "Open", "High", "Low", "Close", "Volume") > #convert dataframe to an xts object > data1 <- as.xts(data[,-(1:2)], as.POSIXct(paste(data[,1],data[,2]), + format='%Y.%m.%d %H:%M')) > > tail(data1) Open High Low Close Volume 2017-05-17 16:26:00 1.29636 1.29661 1.29631 1.29634 215 2017-05-17 16:27:00 1.29633 1.29640 1.29615 1.29624 144 2017-05-17 16:28:00 1.29623 1.29624 1.29602 1.29603 195 2017-05-17 16:29:00 1.29604 1.29615 1.29593 1.29612 234 2017-05-17 16:30:00 1.29613 1.29616 1.29582 1.29585 234 2017-05-17 16:31:00 1.29584 1.29586 1.29578 1.29585 46 > > data2<- data1[,"Close"] > data2$CO <- (data1[, "Close"]-data1[,"Open"])/data1[,"Open"] > data2$HL <- (data1[, "High"]-data1[,"Low"])/data1[,"Low"] > data2$Close1 <- lag(data2$Close, k=1) > data2$CO1 <- lag(data2$CO, k=1) > data2$HL1 <- lag(data2$HL, k=1) > data2$Close2 <- lag(data2$Close, k=2) > data2$CO2 <- lag(data2$CO, k=2) > data2$HL2 <- lag(data2$HL, k=2) > data2$Close3 <- lag(data2$Close, k=3) > data2$CO3 <- lag(data2$CO, k=3) > data2$HL3 <- lag(data2$HL, k=3) > data2$Close4 <- lag(data2$Close, k=4) > data2$CO4 <- lag(data2$CO, k=4) > data2$HL4 <- lag(data2$HL, k=4) > tail(data2) Close CO HL Close1 CO1 HL1 2017-05-17 16:26:00 1.29634 -1.542781e-05 2.314261e-04 1.29635 -1.388321e-04 0.0002314208 2017-05-17 16:27:00 1.29624 -6.942677e-05 1.928789e-04 1.29634 -1.542781e-05 0.0002314261 2017-05-17 16:28:00 1.29603 -1.542936e-04 1.697505e-04 1.29624 -6.942677e-05 0.0001928789 2017-05-17 16:29:00 1.29612 6.172649e-05 1.697623e-04 1.29603 -1.542936e-04 0.0001697505 2017-05-17 16:30:00 1.29585 -2.160277e-04 2.623821e-04 1.29612 6.172649e-05 0.0001697623 2017-05-17 16:31:00 1.29585 7.717002e-06 6.173888e-05 1.29585 -2.160277e-04 0.0002623821 Close2 CO2 HL2 Close3 CO3 HL3 2017-05-17 16:26:00 1.29654 7.712895e-06 0.0001234168 1.29652 -1.079697e-04 0.0002853793 2017-05-17 16:27:00 1.29635 -1.388321e-04 0.0002314208 1.29654 7.712895e-06 0.0001234168 2017-05-17 16:28:00 1.29634 -1.542781e-05 0.0002314261 1.29635 -1.388321e-04 0.0002314208 2017-05-17 16:29:00 1.29624 -6.942677e-05 0.0001928789 1.29634 -1.542781e-05 0.0002314261 2017-05-17 16:30:00 1.29603 -1.542936e-04 0.0001697505 1.29624 -6.942677e-05 0.0001928789 2017-05-17 16:31:00 1.29612 6.172649e-05 0.0001697623 1.29603 -1.542936e-04 0.0001697505 Close4 CO4 HL4 2017-05-17 16:26:00 1.29665 2.545668e-04 0.0003471579 2017-05-17 16:27:00 1.29652 -1.079697e-04 0.0002853793 2017-05-17 16:28:00 1.29654 7.712895e-06 0.0001234168 2017-05-17 16:29:00 1.29635 -1.388321e-04 0.0002314208 2017-05-17 16:30:00 1.29634 -1.542781e-05 0.0002314261 2017-05-17 16:31:00 1.29624 -6.942677e-05 0.0001928789 > > #direction<- data.frame(matrix(NA,dim(data2)[1],1)) > pips<- 10000*(diff(data1$Close, k=5)) > n=2 > direction <- ifelse(pips > n, "Up", + ifelse(pips < -n, "Down", "Range")) > > direction <- lag(direction, k=-5) > tail(direction) Close 2017-05-17 16:26:00 "Range" 2017-05-17 16:27:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:28:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:29:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:30:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:31:00 NA > direction <- factor(direction) > > x <- nrow(data2) > > train2<- data2[(x-500):(x-200),] > valid2<- data2[(x-199):(x-6),] > test2<- data2[(x-5):x,] > > > trainmean<- apply(train2,2,mean) > trainstd<- apply(train2,2,sd) > > > trainidn<- (matrix(1,dim(train2)[1],dim(train2)[2])) > valiidn<- (matrix(1,dim(valid2)[1],dim(valid2)[2])) > testidn<- (matrix(1,dim(test2)[1],dim(test2)[2])) > > > norm_train<- (train2 - t(trainmean*t(trainidn))) / t(trainstd*t(trainidn)) > norm_valid<- (valid2 - t(trainmean*t(valiidn))) / t(trainstd*t(valiidn)) > norm_test<- (test2 - t(trainmean*t(testidn))) / t(trainstd*t(testidn)) > > > traindir<- direction[(x-500):(x-200)] > validir<- direction[(x-199):(x-6)] > testdir<- direction[(x-5):x] > > library(caret) > library(e1071) > m3 <- train(norm_train, traindir, + method = "nnet", + tuneGrid = expand.grid( + .size = c(40), + .decay = 0.1), + trControl = trainControl(method = "none"), + MaxNWts = 50000, + maxit = 1000) # weights: 763 initial value 508.087290 iter 10 value 214.118369 iter 20 value 163.135688 iter 30 value 133.087117 iter 40 value 116.461972 iter 50 value 110.088698 iter 60 value 105.385186 iter 70 value 103.180276 iter 80 value 102.339347 iter 90 value 101.762369 iter 100 value 100.844553 iter 110 value 100.235618 iter 120 value 99.877796 iter 130 value 99.623222 iter 140 value 99.450404 iter 150 value 99.301965 iter 160 value 99.256903 iter 170 value 99.185848 iter 180 value 99.115716 iter 190 value 99.007136 iter 200 value 98.988401 iter 210 value 98.974478 iter 220 value 98.966304 iter 230 value 98.962196 iter 240 value 98.958897 iter 250 value 98.956157 iter 260 value 98.954591 iter 270 value 98.953682 iter 280 value 98.953133 iter 290 value 98.951986 iter 300 value 98.941686 iter 310 value 98.916859 iter 320 value 98.887349 iter 330 value 98.876204 iter 340 value 98.871270 iter 350 value 98.867634 iter 360 value 98.861265 iter 370 value 98.859520 iter 380 value 98.857350 iter 390 value 98.809161 iter 400 value 98.794699 iter 410 value 98.791562 iter 420 value 98.790035 iter 430 value 98.789596 iter 440 value 98.789251 iter 450 value 98.788956 iter 460 value 98.788709 iter 470 value 98.788521 iter 480 value 98.788423 iter 490 value 98.788364 iter 500 value 98.788318 iter 510 value 98.788301 final value 98.788299 converged > > #calculate acccuracy on the training data > direction1 <- predict(m3) > caret::confusionMatrix(xtabs(~direction1 + traindir)) Confusion Matrix and Statistics traindir direction1 Down Range Up Down 33 0 0 Range 0 228 1 Up 0 0 39 Overall Statistics Accuracy : 0.9967 95% CI : (0.9816, 0.9999) No Information Rate : 0.7575 P-Value [Acc > NIR] : < 2.2e-16 Kappa : 0.9916 Mcnemar's Test P-Value : NA Statistics by Class: Class: Down Class: Range Class: Up Sensitivity 1.0000 1.0000 0.9750 Specificity 1.0000 0.9863 1.0000 Pos Pred Value 1.0000 0.9956 1.0000 Neg Pred Value 1.0000 1.0000 0.9962 Prevalence 0.1096 0.7575 0.1329 Detection Rate 0.1096 0.7575 0.1296 Detection Prevalence 0.1096 0.7608 0.1296 Balanced Accuracy 1.0000 0.9932 0.9875 > > #calculate accuracy on validation data > vali_pred <- predict(m3, norm_valid) > head(vali_pred) [1] Range Range Range Range Range Range Levels: Down Range Up > barplot(table(direction)) > caret::confusionMatrix(xtabs(~vali_pred + validir)) Confusion Matrix and Statistics validir vali_pred Down Range Up Down 1 9 0 Range 11 152 17 Up 2 1 1 Overall Statistics Accuracy : 0.7938 95% CI : (0.73, 0.8484) No Information Rate : 0.8351 P-Value [Acc > NIR] : 0.9465680 Kappa : 0.061 Mcnemar's Test P-Value : 0.0009289 Statistics by Class: Class: Down Class: Range Class: Up Sensitivity 0.071429 0.9383 0.055556 Specificity 0.950000 0.1250 0.982955 Pos Pred Value 0.100000 0.8444 0.250000 Neg Pred Value 0.929348 0.2857 0.910526 Prevalence 0.072165 0.8351 0.092784 Detection Rate 0.005155 0.7835 0.005155 Detection Prevalence 0.051546 0.9278 0.020619 Balanced Accuracy 0.510714 0.5316 0.519255

In the above model we increased the hidden layer neurons from 10 to 40 plus we increased the inputs from 12 to 16. This increased the in sample accuracy from 89% to 99% while out of sample accuracy increased from 72% to 79%. We want an out of sample accuracy of 85% at least before we start trading live with our model. We try to re-engineer the features and see if it helps.

**Neural Network Forex Trading System 3**

This is our third model. In this model we will be using candlestick pattern concepts like the candlestick body which is just close minue open and the candlestick range which is just the high minus low. We will also use concept of Upper Shadow which is the difference between the High and the Close for a bullish candle and High and the Low for a bearish candle for a calculating the Upper Shadow. For the Lower Shadow we take the difference between the Open and Low for a bullish candle and Close and Low for a bearish candle.

> #load the libraries > library(quantmod) > #import the data > data <- read.csv("D:/MarketData/GBPUSD+1.csv", header = FALSE) > colnames(data) <- c("Date", "Time", "Open", "High", "Low", "Close", "Volume") > #convert dataframe to an xts object > data1 <- as.xts(data[,-(1:2)], as.POSIXct(paste(data[,1],data[,2]), + format='%Y.%m.%d %H:%M')) > > tail(data1) Open High Low Close Volume 2017-05-17 16:26:00 1.29636 1.29661 1.29631 1.29634 215 2017-05-17 16:27:00 1.29633 1.29640 1.29615 1.29624 144 2017-05-17 16:28:00 1.29623 1.29624 1.29602 1.29603 195 2017-05-17 16:29:00 1.29604 1.29615 1.29593 1.29612 234 2017-05-17 16:30:00 1.29613 1.29616 1.29582 1.29585 234 2017-05-17 16:31:00 1.29584 1.29586 1.29578 1.29585 46 > > data2<- data1[,"Close"] > data2$Body <- data1[, "Close"]-data1[,"Open"] > data2$Range <- data1[, "High"]-data1[,"Low"] > data2$US <- ifelse(data1[, "Close"] > data1[ ,"Open"], + data1[, "High"]-data1[, "Close"], + data1[, "High"]-data1[, "Open"]) > data2$LS <- ifelse(data1[, "Close"] > data1[ ,"Open"], + data1[, "Open"]-data1[, "Low"], + data1[, "Close"]-data1[, "Low"]) > data2$Close1 <- lag(data2$Close, k=1) > data2$Body1 <- lag(data2$Body, k=1) > data2$Range1 <- lag(data2$Range, k=1) > data2$US1 <- lag(data2$US, k=1) > data2$LS1 <- lag(data2$LS, k=1) > data2$Close2 <- lag(data2$Close, k=2) > data2$Body2 <- lag(data2$Body, k=2) > data2$Range2 <- lag(data2$Range, k=2) > data2$US2 <- lag(data2$US, k=2) > data2$LS2 <- lag(data2$LS, k=2) > tail(data2) Close Body Range US LS Close1 Body1 Range1 US1 2017-05-17 16:26:00 1.29634 -0.00002 0.00030 0.00025 0.00003 1.29635 -0.00018 0.00030 0.00011 2017-05-17 16:27:00 1.29624 -0.00009 0.00025 0.00007 0.00009 1.29634 -0.00002 0.00030 0.00025 2017-05-17 16:28:00 1.29603 -0.00020 0.00022 0.00001 0.00001 1.29624 -0.00009 0.00025 0.00007 2017-05-17 16:29:00 1.29612 0.00008 0.00022 0.00003 0.00011 1.29603 -0.00020 0.00022 0.00001 2017-05-17 16:30:00 1.29585 -0.00028 0.00034 0.00003 0.00003 1.29612 0.00008 0.00022 0.00003 2017-05-17 16:31:00 1.29585 0.00001 0.00008 0.00001 0.00006 1.29585 -0.00028 0.00034 0.00003 LS1 Close2 Body2 Range2 US2 LS2 2017-05-17 16:26:00 0.00001 1.29654 0.00001 0.00016 0.00004 0.00011 2017-05-17 16:27:00 0.00003 1.29635 -0.00018 0.00030 0.00011 0.00001 2017-05-17 16:28:00 0.00009 1.29634 -0.00002 0.00030 0.00025 0.00003 2017-05-17 16:29:00 0.00001 1.29624 -0.00009 0.00025 0.00007 0.00009 2017-05-17 16:30:00 0.00011 1.29603 -0.00020 0.00022 0.00001 0.00001 2017-05-17 16:31:00 0.00003 1.29612 0.00008 0.00022 0.00003 0.00011 > > #direction<- data.frame(matrix(NA,dim(data2)[1],1)) > pips<- 10000*(diff(data1$Close, k=5)) > n=2.5 > direction <- ifelse(pips > n, "Up", + ifelse(pips < -n, "Down", "Range")) > > direction <- lag(direction, k=-5) > tail(direction) Close 2017-05-17 16:26:00 "Range" 2017-05-17 16:27:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:28:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:29:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:30:00 NA 2017-05-17 16:31:00 NA > direction <- factor(direction) > > x <- nrow(data2) > > train2<- data2[(x-300):(x-100),] > valid2<- data2[(x-99):(x-6),] > test2<- data2[(x-5):x,] > > > trainmean<- apply(train2,2,mean) > trainstd<- apply(train2,2,sd) > > > trainidn<- (matrix(1,dim(train2)[1],dim(train2)[2])) > valiidn<- (matrix(1,dim(valid2)[1],dim(valid2)[2])) > testidn<- (matrix(1,dim(test2)[1],dim(test2)[2])) > > > norm_train<- (train2 - t(trainmean*t(trainidn))) / t(trainstd*t(trainidn)) > norm_valid<- (valid2 - t(trainmean*t(valiidn))) / t(trainstd*t(valiidn)) > norm_test<- (test2 - t(trainmean*t(testidn))) / t(trainstd*t(testidn)) > > > traindir<- direction[(x-300):(x-100)] > validir<- direction[(x-99):(x-6)] > testdir<- direction[(x-5):x] > > library(caret) > library(e1071) > m3 <- train(norm_train, traindir, + method = "nnet", + tuneGrid = expand.grid( + .size = c(10), + .decay = 0.1), + trControl = trainControl(method = "none"), + MaxNWts = 50000, + maxit = 1000) # weights: 193 initial value 147.861754 iter 10 value 73.658023 iter 20 value 55.491725 iter 30 value 48.026823 iter 40 value 46.252393 iter 50 value 45.742213 iter 60 value 45.279406 iter 70 value 45.071429 iter 80 value 45.004627 iter 90 value 44.975451 iter 100 value 44.908225 iter 110 value 44.851912 iter 120 value 44.682247 iter 130 value 44.633824 iter 140 value 44.577723 iter 150 value 44.481995 iter 160 value 44.344888 iter 170 value 44.071917 iter 180 value 43.951889 iter 190 value 43.923721 iter 200 value 43.919855 iter 210 value 43.919536 final value 43.919523 converged > > # calculate in sample accuracy > #calculate acccuracy on the training data > direction1 <- predict(m3) > caret::confusionMatrix(xtabs(~direction1 + traindir)) Confusion Matrix and Statistics traindir direction1 Down Range Up Down 9 0 0 Range 1 175 0 Up 0 0 16 Overall Statistics Accuracy : 0.995 95% CI : (0.9726, 0.9999) No Information Rate : 0.8706 P-Value [Acc > NIR] : 2.498e-11 Kappa : 0.9783 Mcnemar's Test P-Value : NA Statistics by Class: Class: Down Class: Range Class: Up Sensitivity 0.90000 1.0000 1.0000 Specificity 1.00000 0.9615 1.0000 Pos Pred Value 1.00000 0.9943 1.0000 Neg Pred Value 0.99479 1.0000 1.0000 Prevalence 0.04975 0.8706 0.0796 Detection Rate 0.04478 0.8706 0.0796 Detection Prevalence 0.04478 0.8756 0.0796 Balanced Accuracy 0.95000 0.9808 1.0000 > > #calculate out of sample accuracy > vali_pred <- predict(m3, norm_valid) > head(vali_pred) [1] Range Range Range Range Range Range Levels: Down Range Up > barplot(table(direction)) > caret::confusionMatrix(xtabs(~vali_pred + validir)) Confusion Matrix and Statistics validir vali_pred Down Range Up Down 0 1 0 Range 5 79 7 Up 0 2 0 Overall Statistics Accuracy : 0.8404 95% CI : (0.7505, 0.9078) No Information Rate : 0.8723 P-Value [Acc > NIR] : 0.8595 Kappa : -0.0406 Mcnemar's Test P-Value : NA Statistics by Class: Class: Down Class: Range Class: Up Sensitivity 0.00000 0.9634 0.00000 Specificity 0.98876 0.0000 0.97701 Pos Pred Value 0.00000 0.8681 0.00000 Neg Pred Value 0.94624 0.0000 0.92391 Prevalence 0.05319 0.8723 0.07447 Detection Rate 0.00000 0.8404 0.00000 Detection Prevalence 0.01064 0.9681 0.02128 Balanced Accuracy 0.49438 0.4817 0.48851

Now we have further improved our model. You can see the in sample accuracy is 99.5%. Out of sample accuracy has increased to 84%. But we are facing another problem noww. kappa which tells us how much the predictions are depending on random chance is quite low which is a bad sign. This model may not bee good for actual trading. We need to improve the model so tht Kappa goes above something like 0.5. Below is a plot that explains why kappa is so low.

You can see most of the time the market is ranging. So just by predicting that the market is ranging, our model can make a correct prediction. But we will not be using this range prediction in our trading. We will be using the Up and down prediction in our trading. But as you can see in the above plot most of the time market in ranging and it moves up and down quite seldom. We need to be very accuracte about the Up and Down prediction. So we need to work more on the model. But I think we are working in the right direction and we can further improve our model using better deep learning models. Did you watch this **documentary on UK Billionaire traders**?

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